Inserm, Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale
Faculté de pharmacie, Aix Marseille Université

Accueil » Publications » Communications internationales » Autotaxin is released from adipocytes, catalyzes lysophosphatidic acid (...)

Autotaxin is released from adipocytes, catalyzes lysophosphatidic acid synthesis, and activates preadipocyte proliferation. Up-regulated expression with adipocyte differentiation and obesity

Ferry G, Tellier E, Try A, Grés S, Naime I, Simon MF, Rodriguez M, Boucher J, Tack I, Gesta S, Chomarat P, Dieu M, Raes M, Galizzi JP, Valet P, Boutin JA, Saulnier-Blache JS. J Biol Chem. 2003 May 16 ;278(20):18162-9. IF 4,7

Abstract

Our group has recently demonstrated (Gesta, S., Simon, M., Rey, A., Sibrac, D., Girard, A., Lafontan, M., Valet, P., and Saulnier-Blache, J. S. (2002) J. Lipid Res. 43, 904-910) the presence, in adipocyte conditioned-medium, of a soluble lysophospholipase d-activity (LPLDact) involved in synthesis of the bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In the present report, LPLDact was purified from 3T3F442A adipocyte-conditioned medium and identified as the type II ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase, autotaxin (ATX). A unique ATX cDNA was cloned from 3T3F442A adipocytes, and its recombinant expression in COS-7 cells led to extracellular release of LPLDact. ATX mRNA expression was highly up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3F442A-preadipocytes. This up-regulation was paralleled by the ability of newly differentiated adipocytes to release LPLDact and LPA. Differentiation-dependent up-regulation of ATX expression was also observed in a primary culture of mouse preadipocytes.

Treatment of 3T3F442A-preadipocytes with concentrated conditioned medium from ATX-expressing COS-7 cells led to an increase in cell number as compared with concentrated conditioned medium from ATX non-expressing COS-7 cells. The specific effect of ATX on preadipocyte proliferation was completely suppressed by co-treatment with a LPA-hydrolyzing phospholipase, phospholipase B. Finally, ATX expression was found in mature adipocytes isolated from mouse adipose tissue and was substantially increased in genetically obese-diabetic db/db mice when compared with their lean siblings.

In conclusion, the present work shows that ATX is responsible for the LPLDact released by adipocytes and exerts a paracrine control on preadipocyte growth via an LPA-dependent mechanism. Up-regulations of ATX expression with adipocyte differentiation and genetic obesity suggest a possible involvement of this released protein in the development of adipose tissue and obesity-associated pathologies.

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